Posts Tagged ‘Eye Diseases’

What is glaucoma

March 7th, 2010

Glaucoma is an eye disease caused by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) resulting either from a malformation or malfunction of the eye’s drainage structures.  The eye constantly produces aqueous, which fills the anterior chamber, the space between the cornea and iris. If the aqueous can’t filter out of the anterior chamber through a complex drainage system, glaucoma occurred. If left untreated, glaucoma may lead to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resulted in vision loss. Normal people’s IOPs fall between 8 and 21 when the patients will be much higher, and it can be a signs for developing glaucoma.

There are several types of glaucoma, common types including open angle, acute angle closure, secondary glaucoma and congenital glaucoma. Some types of glaucoma such as angle closure and congenital have symptoms, for example, sudden decrease of vision, extreme eye pain, headache, or light sensitivity. But in most case, glaucoma does not have symptoms. This is reason why glaucoma has been called the “sneak thief of sight” causing the loss of vision gradually over a long period of time and is often recognized when the disease is quite advanced. So people with symptoms or those who are more than 40 years old should have an annual examination including the screening for glaucoma, for example measuring the intraocular pressure, or if necessary doctor will evaluate the health of optic nerve by ophthalmoscopy and the peripheral vision and the structures in the front of the eye by gonioscopy.

Most patients with glaucoma only need to control the eye pressure. They may use one or several medications, usually eye drops, to reduce the pressure. Surgery may be carried out when medical treatment fails to control the pressure, in order to allow fluid to drain from the eye efficiently.

A list of eye diseases

February 19th, 2010

Human Eyes are important organs that detect light and allow light to enter it and project onto retina, at the rear of the eye, and then send signals along the optic nerve to the visual areas of the brain. The eye includes a lens that is very similar to lenses of optical instruments such as cameras. The muscles around the iris can relax or tighten the pupil to regulate the amount of light that enters the eye.

Every parts of the eyes may be disordered, thus different kinds of eye diseases occurred. The WHO divided eye diseases mainly into several parts. Cataract and glaucoma are two of the most common eye diseases, the former one is due to the opaque of lens, and the later eye disease is belong to optic neuropathy.

The eye disease of disorders of sclera, cornea, iris and ciliary body, including scleritis, keratitis, corneal uler, snow blindness – a painful eye disease caused by exposure of bright light, corneal neovascularization, fuchs’ dystrophy, keratocunus, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca – an eye disease usually called dry eyes, iritis, and uveitis.

Other eye diseases are disorders of choroid and retina. For instance, retinal detachment – a kind of eye disease refers to the detachment of retina from the choroid, retinoschisis, hypertensive retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, age-related macular degeneration, macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular edema.

Floaters is an eye disease dur to the disorders of vitreous body and globe with shadow-like shapes appare sometimes in the field of vision.

When ocular muscles are out of control, many common eye diseases arise, such as strabismus, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, esotropia, exotropia, hypermetropia, myopia, astigmatism, anisometropia, presbyopia and internal ophthalmoplegia.

Many eye diseases belong to visual disturbances, for example amblyopia – an eye disease also called lazy eye, scotoma, color blindness, achromatopsia and nyctalopia.

Blindness is the most severe eye disease in which the brain can’t receive optical information.

Eye treatment methods for common eye diseases

January 4th, 2010

Eyes are easy to be affected by bacteria, fungi or viruses, or to be injured, with exposure to a foreign body or chemical. There are hundreds types of diseases related with human eyes.

Eye treatment is the method that an ophthalmologist adopt to cure eye diseases in his office or an emergency department. Eye treatment can also be carried out at home by your own, for example, flushing the eye with great amounts of lukewarm tap water or commercially prepared eyewash solution under eye infection by chemical or eye injury. However, when a foreign body gets into the eye, you should not rob your eyes, and eye irrigation is usually not recommended. Eye treatment methods are usually different according to different types of eye disease. Following listed some medical eye treatment methods for common eye diseases.

Viral conjunctivitis and bacterial conjunctivitis are usually treated with antibiotic eye drops, when allergic conjunctivitis is normally treated with antihistamines.

The eye treatment for corneal abrasions and ulcerations includes antibiotic eye drops, eye ointment, and pain medication.

Chemical eye burns should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist besides an eye treatment of eye irrigation.

Scrubbing the eyelid edges with mild shampoo is the eye treatment method for curing blepharitis by removing excess oil.

The eye treatment method for styes or chalozions is usually conservative, by placing warm compresses for 15 to 20 minutes with cloth with hot water several times a day.

The eye treatment method for glaucoma is more complex. Treatment for severe glaucoma usually begins with several types of eye drops, such as a topical beta-blocker, a topical steroid drop, and a pupillary constricting eyedrop. Emergency surgery may be carried out for acute glaucoma.

Traumatic events to the eye should be managed by ophthalmologists and need immediate evaluation in the emergency department.